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Rezo Frolov
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Compendium Of Raspberry And Blackberry Diseases...

Raspberries and blackberries are a perennial favorite among consumers. Unfortunately, they are also a favorite host crop for pests. Protect your plants with the most up-to-date and comprehensive resource available: the Compendium of Raspberry and Blackberry Diseases and Pests, Second Edition.This completely revised edition helps users quickly identify and manage raspberry and blackberry diseases, insect pests, and abiotic orders with practical management information and more than 200 high-quality images for diagnosis. It is your best defense against pests and disorders that threaten the health and yields of these two popular bramble plants, from the roots and crown to their flowers, fruits, and leaves.This important new book reflects the latest practices for managing diseases in organic and high-tunnel production systems. Pest coverage is wide and applicable to many of the world's growing regions for these crops. The second edition also covers new diseases and viruses that have been identified since the first edition and adds 50 pages as well as 50 additional symptom images. Specific pest coverage includes:- Bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases- Insect and mite pests- Abiotic disorders, such as herbicide injury and environmental stressors- Diseases caused by an alga- Diseases caused by a phytoplasma- The use and effects of cultural practices- The development of healthy planting materials in the nursery/greenhouse industryEach section includes information on symptoms, causal organisms, distribution, diagnostic features or detection methods, and management strategies. The Compendium of Raspberry and Blackberry Diseases and Pests, Second Edition is ideal for commercial growing operations, nurseries, crop consultants, extension educators, diagnosticians, plant pathologists, entomologists, horticulturists, regulators, and gardeners.

Compendium of Raspberry and Blackberry Diseases...


Thekke-Veetil, T., Khadgi, A., Johnson, D.T., Burrack, H., Sabanadzovic, S. and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2017. First report of raspberry leaf mottle virus in blackberry in the United States. Plant Disease 101:265

The composition and content of individual phenolic compounds invarious fruit wines and overall antioxidant properties of these fruit wineswere studied. Phenolic compounds were separated by reverse phase (RP) HPLCtechniques, and their content was determined by means of mass spectrometer(MS) with triple quadrupole (TQ) analyser, which recorded specificprecursor-product transitions. Antioxidant activity was monitored by thefollowing spectrophotometric methods: DPPH, FRAP and Folin-Ciocalteu assay,respectively. Four types of berries (raspberry, blackberry, chokeberry andblueberry), one type of pome (apple) and one type of stone fruit (cherries)were used for the production of fruit wines. Corresponding fruit wines wereproduced by microvinification with or without adding sugar into the mustbefore fermentation. Increase in alcohol level was responsible for theincreased content of phenolic compounds in fruit wine due to improvedextraction conditions. Produced fruit wines were preserved by addingS[O.sub.2] which interferes with the determination of antioxidant activity ofphenolic compounds. In this case, the development of a correlation methodbased on FRAP assay was introduced. Fruit wines are a rich source ofsubstances which show beneficial effects on human health. Depending on thefruit type, different antioxidant compounds were predominant in wine samples.

Wines were made through microvinification from two kinds ofbramble fruit (raspberry and blackberry), two kinds of berry fruit (blueberryand black chokeberry), one kind of pomaceous fruit (apple) and one kind offruit from the drupe family (sour cherry). The fruit was picked in 2013, inthe state of full technological maturity and phytosanitary health of 100%. 30kg of each fruit was used in microvinification during 2013. Beforefermentation, sour cherry was processed by two techniques. In the firstmethod, the pits were removed from the fruit before it was fragmented, whilein the second method, the fruit was fragmented together with the pits butwithout cracking them. Brambles, berries, cherries and apples were fragmentedand, as with some other authors [13], [K.sub.2][S.sub.2][O.sub.5] was addedin the must to inhibit growth of unwanted bacterial populations duringfermentation. 10 g of potassium metabisulfite([K.sub.2][S.sub.2][O.sub.5])/100 kg was added to the obtained pomace.Subsequently, the pomace was inoculated with the pure strain of selected wineyeast Lievito Secco (Enartis, Italy) at the dose of 20 g/100 kg. This is howthe control samples were prepared. Another sequence of experiments wasperformed using the fruit processed in the same way but with sugar sucrose(Sajkaska, Serbia) added directly to the pomace in order to increase totalsoluble solids in the must up to 20.5[degrees] Brix. Adding this amount ofsugar before fermentation was intended to achieve alcohol content of 11% inthe end product. Alcohol fermentation of each investigated fruit pomace wascarried out at room temperature (20[degrees]C) over the next 7 to 10 days.While undergoing fermentation, the pomace was regularly stirred twice a day.Once the fermentation was completed, young wine was separated by strainingwithout pressure. Wine yield was from 45 to 60% for raspberry, blackberry,blueberry and black chokeberry, while it was 50% for the cherry and around60% for the apple. After one month, the wine was racked off the sediment forthe first time and the racking was repeated the following month. The wineswere kept at 8[degrees]C during the next six months and after that time allanalyses were performed. The wines made that way were further stabilized bykeeping them in a cold place. Once stabilized, the wine samples were preparedfor analysis.

The distribution of caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, p-coumaricacid and vanillic acid is widespread in berry crops. Those compounds act asnatural antioxidants. The structure and content of individual phenolics inberries influence total antioxidant capacity. One of the abovementionedphenolic acids, chlorogenic acid was detected in significant amounts inblueberries by authors Zheng and Wang [25]. The samples of blueberry wine area rich source of chlorogenic acid which is in line with the literature [26].Looking at the content of chlorogenic acid in the analysed samples, it wasobserved that it was present in higher amounts than all other compounds,until it was found in blackberry and raspberry wine. Presence of chlorogenicacid in apple wine samples produced from the Jonagold variety was confirmedby the analysis of the variety with the same name. [27]. Besides chlorogenicacid, blueberry wine stands out with the highest content of p-coumaric acidwhich was confirmed to be present in this fruit by Hakkinen et al. [28].Similarly to some other authors Macheix et al. [29], caffeic acid wasdetected in our fruit wine samples. In comparison with other samples, caffeicacid was present in the largest amounts in blueberry and chokeberry wine.Finnish scientists have shown that caffeic acid is also present in chokeberryand blueberry fruit [28]. The results of one study suggest that the contentof caffeic acid depends on a sunexposure-dependent induction of caftaric acidhydrolysis [30]. Protocatechuic acid was present in the largest amounts inblueberry and chokeberry wine until it was found in apple and raspberry wine.Epicatechin and catechin were present in blueberry wine which is in line withtheir established presence in the fruit [31]. Rutin was found only inchokeberry wine. The analysed samples of cherry wine are a source of caffeicacid, chlorogenic acid and protocatechuic acid. The flavonoid naringenin wasalso found in the samples. Its content is shown in Table 3 and it is in linewith the literature [32]. Epicatechin and vanillic acid were present in thelargest amounts in cherry wine, where catechin was also found. The presenceof these compounds in the examined wine was also confirmed by cherry analysiscarried out by Spanish authors [31]. Catechin and epicatechin were alsodetermined in blackberry, raspberry and apple wine, their presence incorresponding fruits was also confirmed by authors [33]. Blackberry andraspberry wine, according to the data from Table 3, are a rich source ofellagic acid which provides long-term health benefits [34]. The content ofellagic acid in blackberry wine with and w/o sugar was predominant incomparison with other analysed samples, which was confirmed by other authorsas well [35]. Literature data shows that ellagic acid was also found inraspberries [28]. Ellagic acid was not found in apple or cherry wine. Fruitphenolic acids such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and chlorogenic acidshowed activity in inhibiting human LDL oxidation in vitro [36]. Analysis offruit wine samples showed that they were also a source of flavonols such asquercetin and kaempferol. The largest amounts of quercetin were found inchokeberry wine. The obtained results correspond to tests conducted byFinnish authors which showed that chokeberry had the largest content ofquercetin, followed by the blueberry, while the lowest amount was found inthe raspberry [37]. Quercetin found in raspberry wine is one of the mainflavonols in this fruit, which is in line with literature data [28]. One ofthe most predominant flavonols in cherry wine was quercetin which wasconfirmed to be present in cherry fruit as well [38]. Some flavonoids,including quercetin, have beneficial effects on human health, probablythrough inhibiting the oxidative modification of LDL by macrophages in vitro.The abovementioned compounds inhibit the formation of hydroperoxides andprotect a-tocopherol present in lipoproteins from oxidation [39]. Thecytotoxicity of oxidised LDL in vitro is inhibited by quercetin [40]. Minoramounts of kaempferol were only found in wine made from cherries withoutpits. The obtained kaempferol results are in conformity with literature datawhich show that it has not been found in chokeberry, blueberry or raspberry[37]. Flavonoids are natural constituents of food. Their positive effect hasbeen demonstrated in the next study. A Dutch study [41] showed that relativerisks of mortality from coronary heart diseases and first myocardialinfractions in the group of study participants with the highest flavonoidintake was lower by 50% than in the group with the lowest flavonoid intake.This data suggests that dietary intake of flavonoids is very important. Redwine is a very rich source of flavonoids and it contains 10-20 mg/L [42]. Ithas also been observed that flavonoids reduce thrombosis by inhibitingcyclooxygenases [43]. In the conducted study, high antioxidant activity onLDL oxidation was also detected in catechin, quercetin, cyanidin and caffeicacid. Unfortunately, ellagic acid did not show any effects during theexperiment [44]. In the same study, caffeic acid proved to be a strongeranti-oxidant in inhibiting LDL oxidation, in comparison to ellagic acid whichhad more free hydroxyl groups in its structure. The reason for this is thefact that antioxidant activity of flavonoids and phenolic acids may depend onthe structural characteristics conferring differences in protein binding[45]. 041b061a72


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