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Meals & nutrition

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Rezo Frolov
Rezo Frolov


dem me worry yah, we got and come back with da formula,and everybody is speechless like Michael Jackson's son you know ,when we are work dem dela laugh you know ,no blood in adi eye benz drive in adi antidote, for the formula... mi give you money fi de formula, yeah,yeah,i got de formula... Dem me want me hear,live me learn na life me care,just a coffee in adi trap a want me damn get track for count a deal, me leave ma own life, without no fear, and if me go away,tell funs dat me


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An alkaline battery (IEC code: L) is a type of primary battery where the electrolyte (most commonly potassium hydroxide) has a pH value above 7. Typically these batteries derive energy from the reaction between zinc metal and manganese dioxide, nickel and cadmium, or nickel and hydrogen.

Alkaline batteries account for 80% of manufactured batteries in the US and over 10 billion individual units produced worldwide. In Japan, alkaline batteries account for 46% of all primary battery sales. In Switzerland, alkaline batteries account for 68%, in the UK 60% and in the EU 47% of all battery sales including secondary types.[1][2][3][4][5] Alkaline batteries contain zinc (Zn) and manganese dioxide (MnO2) (Health codes 1), which is a cumulative neurotoxin and can be toxic in higher concentrations. However, compared to other battery types, the toxicity of alkaline batteries is moderate.[6]

Batteries with alkaline (rather than acid) electrolyte were first developed by Waldemar Jungner in 1899, and, working independently, Thomas Edison in 1901. The modern alkaline dry battery, using the zinc/manganese dioxide chemistry, was invented by the Canadian engineer Lewis Urry in the 1950s in Canada before he started working for Union Carbide's Eveready Battery division in Cleveland, OH, building on earlier work by Edison.[7][8] On October 9, 1957, Urry, Karl Kordesch, and P.A. Marsal filed US patent (2,960,558) for the alkaline battery. It was granted in 1960 and was assigned to the Union Carbide Corporation.[9]

When alkaline batteries were introduced in the late 1960s, their zinc electrodes (in common with the then ubiquitous carbon-zinc cells) had a surface film of mercury amalgam. Its purpose was to control electrolytic action on impurities in the zinc; that unwanted electrolytic action would reduce shelf life and promote leakage. When reductions in mercury content were mandated by various legislatures, it became necessary to greatly improve the purity and consistency of the zinc.[10]

The capacity of an alkaline battery is greater than an equal size Leclanché cell or zinc chloride cell because the manganese dioxide is purer and denser, and less space is taken up by internal components such as electrodes. An alkaline cell can provide between three and five times the capacity of an acidic cell.

The capacity of an alkaline battery is strongly dependent on the load. An AA-sized alkaline battery might have an effective capacity of 3000 mAh at low drain, but at a load of 1 ampere, which is common for digital cameras, the capacity could be as little as 700 mAh.[citation needed] The voltage of the battery declines steadily during use, so the total usable capacity depends on the cutoff voltage of the application.

Unlike Leclanché cells, the alkaline cell delivers about as much capacity on intermittent or continuous light loads. On a heavy load, capacity is reduced on continuous discharge compared with intermittent discharge, but the reduction is less than for Leclanche cells.

The nominal voltage of a fresh alkaline cell as established by manufacturer standards is 1.5 V. The actual zero-load voltage of a new alkaline battery ranges from 1.50 to 1.65 V, depending on the purity of the manganese dioxide used and the contents of zinc oxide in the electrolyte. The voltage delivered to a load decreases as the current drawn increases and as the cell discharges. A cell is considered fully discharged when the voltage drops to about 1.0 V. Cells connected in series produce a voltage which is the sum of the voltages of each cell (e.g., three cells will generate about 4.5 V when new).[10]

The amount of electrical current an alkaline battery can deliver is roughly proportional to its physical size. This is a result of decreasing internal resistance as the internal surface area of the cell increases. A rule of thumb is that an AA alkaline battery can deliver 700 mA without any significant heating. Larger cells, such as C and D cells, can deliver more current. Applications requiring currents of several amperes such as powerful portable audio equipment require D-sized cells to handle the increased load.

A cylindrical cell is contained in a drawn stainless steel can, which is the cathode connection. The positive electrode mixture is a compressed paste of manganese dioxide with carbon powder added for increased conductivity. The paste may be pressed into the can or deposited as pre-molded rings. The hollow center of the cathode is lined with a separator, which prevents contact of the electrode materials and short-circuiting of the cell. The separator is made of a non-woven layer of cellulose or a synthetic polymer. The separator must conduct ions and remain stable in the highly alkaline electrolyte solution.

Some alkaline batteries are designed to be recharged a few times, and are described as rechargeable alkaline batteries. Attempts to recharge standard alkaline batteries may cause rupture, or the leaking of hazardous liquids which will corrode the equipment. However, it is reported that standard alkaline batteries can often be recharged a few times (typically not more than ten), albeit with reduced capacity after each charge; chargers are available commercially. The UK consumer organisation Which? reported that it tested two such chargers with Energizer alkaline batteries, finding that battery capacity dropped on average to 10% of its original value, with huge variations, after two cycles (without stating how depleted they were before recharging) after recharging them two times.[13]

In 2017 Gautam G. Yadav published papers reporting that alkaline batteries made by interleaving the interlayers with copper ions could be recharged for over 6,000 cycles due to the theoretical second electron capacity of manganese dioxide.[clarification needed][14][15] The energy density of these rechargeable batteries with copper intercalated manganese dioxide is reported to be over 160Wh/L, the best among the aqueous-based chemistries.[15] It could be capable of energy densities comparable to lithium-ion (> 250Wh/L) if zinc utilization in the batteries were improved.[14]

Alkaline batteries are prone to leaking potassium hydroxide, a caustic agent that can cause respiratory, eye and skin irritation.[note 1] The risk of this can be reduced by not attempting to recharge disposable alkaline cells, by not mixing different battery types in the same device, by replacing all of the batteries at the same time, by storing batteries in a dry place and at room temperature, and by removing batteries for storage of devices.

Disposal varies by jurisdiction. For example, the state of California considers all batteries as hazardous waste when discarded, and has banned the disposal of batteries in domestic waste.[18] In Europe, battery disposal is controlled by the WEEE Directive and Battery Directive regulations, and as such alkaline batteries must not be thrown in with domestic waste. In the EU, most stores that sell batteries are required by law to accept old batteries for recycling.

In the US, only one state, California, requires all alkaline batteries to be recycled. Vermont also has a statewide alkaline battery collection program.[19] In other US states, individuals can purchase battery recycling kits used to ship batteries to recyclers. Some stores such as IKEA also collect alkaline batteries for recycling. However, some chain stores which advertise battery recycling (such as Best Buy) only accept rechargeable batteries and will generally not accept alkaline batteries.[20] 041b061a72


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