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Timur Muravyov
Timur Muravyov

Managed Switch Port Mapping Tool 2.06 Crack |VERIFIED|


Real-Time Operating System (RTOS) has become the main category of embedded systems. It is widely used to support tasks requiring real-time response such as printers and switches. The security of RTOS has been long overlooked as it was running in special environments isolated from attackers. However, with the rapid development of IoT devices, tremendous RTOS devices are connected to the public network. Due to the lack of security mechanisms, these devices are extremely vulnerable to a wide spectrum of attacks. Even worse, the monolithic design of RTOS combines various tasks and services into a single binary, which hinders the current program testing and analysis techniques working on RTOS. In this paper, we propose SFuzz, a novel slice-based fuzzer, to detect security vulnerabilities in RTOS. Our insight is that RTOS usually divides a complicated binary into many separated but single-minded tasks. Each task accomplishes a particular event in a deterministic way and its control flow is usually straightforward and independent. Therefore, we identify such code from the monolithic RTOS binary and synthesize a slice for effective testing. Specifically, SFuzz first identifies functions that handle user input, constructs call graphs that start from callers of these functions, and leverages forward slicing to build the execution tree based on the call graphs and pruning the paths independent of external inputs. Then, it detects and handles roadblocks within the coarse-grain scope that hinder effective fuzzing, such as instructions unrelated to the user input. And then, it conducts coverage-guided fuzzing on these code snippets. Finally, SFuzz leverages forward and backward slicing to track and verify each path constraint and determine whether a bug discovered in the fuzzer is a real vulnerability. SFuzz successfully discovered 77 zero-day bugs on 35 RTOS samples, and 67 of them have been assigned CVE or CNVD IDs. Our empirical evaluation shows that SFuzz outperforms the state-of-the-art tools (e.g., UnicornAFL) on testing RTOS.




managed switch port mapping tool 2.06 crack



Modern IoT device manufacturers are taking advantage of the managed Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) IoT clouds (e.g., AWS IoT, Azure IoT) for secure and convenient IoT development/deployment. The IoT access control is achieved by manufacturer-specified, cloud-enforced IoT access policies (cloud-standard JSON documents, called IoT Policies) stating which users can access which IoT devices/resources under what constraints. In this paper, we performed a systematic study on the security of cloud-based IoT access policies on modern PaaS/IaaS IoT clouds. Our research shows that the complexity in the IoT semantics and enforcement logic of the policies leaves tremendous space for device manufacturers to program a flawed IoT access policy, introducing convoluted logic flaws which are non-trivial to reason about. In addition to challenges/mistakes in the design space, it is astonishing to find that mainstream device manufacturers also generally make critical mistakes in deploying IoT Policies thanks to the flexibility offered by PaaS/IaaS clouds and the lack of standard practices for doing so. Our assessment of 36 device manufacturers and 310 open-source IoT projects highlights the pervasiveness and seriousness of the problems, which once exploited, can have serious impacts on IoT users' security, safety, and privacy. To help manufacturers identify and easily fix IoT Policy flaws, we introduce P-Verifier, a formal verification tool that can automatically verify cloud-based IoT Policies. With evaluated high effectiveness and low performance overhead, P-Verifier will contribute to elevating security assurance in modern IoT deployments and access control. We responsibly reported all findings to affected vendors and fixes were deployed or on the way.


To enable the preset menu feature, you must specify a file to theconfigure script with the option --enable-preset-menu. The filehas the same semantics as normal configuration files(see Configuration).Another point you should take care is that the diskless support(see Diskless) diverts the preset menu. Diskless images embed apreset menu to execute the command bootp (see bootp)automatically, unless you specify your own preset menu to the configurescript. This means that you must put commands to initialize a network inthe preset menu yourself, because diskless images don't set it upimplicitly, when you use the preset menu explicitly.Therefore, a typical preset menu used with diskless support would belike this:# Set up the serial terminal, first of all.serial --unit=0 --speed=19200terminal --timeout=0 serial# Initialize the network.dhcpNode:Security,Next:Images,Previous:Preset Menu,Up:TopProtecting your computer from crackingYou may be interested in how to prevent ordinary users from doingwhatever they like, if you share your computer with other people. Sothis chapter describes how to improve the security of GRUB.One thing which could be a security hole is that the user can do toomany things with GRUB, because GRUB allows to modify its configurationand run arbitrary commands at run-time. For example, the user can readeven /etc/passwd in the command-line interface by the commandcat (see cat). So it is necessary to disable all theinteractive operations.Thus, GRUB provides password feature, so that only administratorscan start the interactive operations (i.e. editing menu entries andentering the command-line interface). To use this feature, you need torun the command password in your configuration file(see password), like this:password --md5 PASSWORDIf this is specified, GRUB disallows any interactive control, until youpress the key and enter a correct password. The option--md5 tells GRUB that PASSWORD is in MD5 format. If itis omitted, GRUB assumes the PASSWORD is in clear text.You can encrypt your password with the command md5crypt(see md5crypt). For example, run the grub shell (see Invoking the grub shell), and enter your password:grub> md5cryptPassword: **********Encrypted: $1$U$JK7xFegdxWH6VuppCUSIb.Then, cut and paste the encrypted password to your configuration file.Also, you can specify an optional argument to password. Seethis example:password PASSWORD /boot/grub/menu-admin.lstIn this case, GRUB will load /boot/grub/menu-admin.lst as aconfiguration file when you enter the valid password.Another thing which may be dangerous is that any user can choose anymenu entry. Usually, this wouldn't be problematic, but you might want topermit only administrators to run some of your menu entries, such as anentry for booting an insecure OS like DOS.GRUB provides the command lock (see lock). This commandalways fails until you enter a valid password, so you can use it, likethis:title Boot DOSlockrootnoverify (hd0,1)makeactivechainload +1You should insert lock right after title, becauseany user can execute commands in an entry, until GRUB encounterslock.You can also use the command password instead oflock. In this case the boot process will ask for the passwordand stop if it was entered incorrectly. Since the passwordtakes its own PASSWORD argument this is useful if you wantdifferent passwords for different entries.Node:Images,Next:Filesystem,Previous:Security,Up:TopGRUB image filesGRUB consists of several images: two essential stages, optional stagescalled Stage 1.5, and two network boot images. Here is a shortoverview of them. See Internals, for more details.stage1This is an essential image used for booting up GRUB. Usually, this isembedded in a MBR or the boot sector of a partition. Because a PC bootsector is 512 bytes, the size of this image is exactly 512 bytes.All stage1 must do is to load Stage 2 or Stage 1.5 from a localdisk. Because of the size restriction, stage1 encodes thelocation of Stage 2 (or Stage 1.5) in a block list format, so it neverunderstand any filesystem structure.stage2This is the core image of GRUB. This does all things but booting upitself. Usually, this is put in a filesystem, but that is not required.e2fs_stage1_5fat_stage1_5ffs_stage1_5jfs_stage1_5minix_stage1_5reiserfs_stage1_5vstafs_stage1_5xfs_stage1_5These are called Stage 1.5, because the purpose is a bridgebetween stage1 and stage2, that is to say, Stage 1.5 isloaded by Stage 1 and Stage 1.5 loads Stage 2. The difference betweenstage1 and *_stage1_5 is that the former doesn'tunderstand any filesystem but the latter does an filesystem(e.g. e2fs_stage1_5 understands ext2fs). So you can move thelocation of Stage 2 to another safely, even after GRUB has beeninstalled.While Stage 2 cannot generally be embedded in a fixed area as the sizeis so large, Stage 1.5 can be installed into the area right after a MBR,or the boot loader area of a ReiserFS or a FFS.nbgrubThis is a network boot image for the Network Image Proposal used by somenetwork boot loaders, such as Etherboot. This is mostly the same asStage 2, but this also sets up a network and loads a configuration filefrom the network.pxegrubThis is another network boot image for the Preboot Execution Environmentused by several Netboot ROMs. This is identical to nbgrub, exceptfor the format. Node:Filesystem,Next:Interface,Previous:Images,Up:TopFilesystem syntax and semanticsGRUB uses a special syntax for specifying disk drives which can beaccessed by BIOS. Because of BIOS limitations, GRUB cannot distinguishbetween IDE, ESDI, SCSI, or others. You must know yourself which BIOSdevice is equivalent to which OS device. Normally, that will be clear ifyou see the files in a device or use the command find(see find).Device syntax: How to specify devicesFile name syntax: How to specify filesBlock list syntax: How to specify block listsNode:Device syntax,Next:File name syntax,Up:FilesystemHow to specify devicesThe device syntax is like this:(device[,part-num][,bsd-subpart-letter])[] means the parameter is optional. device should beeither fd or hd followed by a digit, like fd0. But you can also set device to a hexadecimal or a decimal, whichis a BIOS drive number, so the following are equivalent:(hd0)(0x80)(128)part-num represents the partition number of device, startingfrom zero for primary partitions and from four for extended partitions,and bsd-subpart-letter represents the BSD disklabel subpartition,such as a or e.A shortcut for specifying BSD subpartitions is(device,bsd-subpart-letter), in this case, GRUBsearches for the first PC partition containing a BSD disklabel, thenfinds the subpartition bsd-subpart-letter. Here is an example:(hd0,a)The syntax like (hd0) represents using the entire disk (or theMBR when installing GRUB), while the syntax like (hd0,0)represents using the partition of the disk (or the boot sector of thepartition when installing GRUB).If you enabled the network support, the special drive, (nd), isalso available. Before using the network drive, you must initialize thenetwork. See Network, for more information.Node:File name syntax,Next:Block list syntax,Previous:Device syntax,Up:FilesystemHow to specify filesThere are two ways to specify files, by absolute file name and byblock list.An absolute file name resembles a Unix absolute file name, using/ for the directory separator (not \ as in DOS). Oneexample is (hd0,0)/boot/grub/menu.lst. This means the file/boot/grub/menu.lst in the first partition of the first harddisk. If you omit the device name in an absolute file name, GRUB usesGRUB's root device implicitly. So if you set the root device to,say, (hd1,0) by the command root (see root), then/boot/kernel is the same as (hd1,0)/boot/kernel.Node:Block list syntax,Previous:File name syntax,Up:FilesystemHow to specify block listsA block list is used for specifying a file that doesn't appear in thefilesystem, like a chainloader. The syntax is[offset]+length[,[offset]+length].... Here is an example:0+100,200+1,300+300This represents that GRUB should read blocks 0 through 99, block 200,and blocks 300 through 599. If you omit an offset, then GRUB assumesthe offset is zero.Like the file name syntax (see File name syntax), if a blocklistdoes not contain a device name, then GRUB uses GRUB's rootdevice. So (hd0,1)+1 is the same as +1 when the rootdevice is (hd0,1).Node:Interface,Next:Commands,Previous:Filesystem,Up:TopGRUB's user interfaceGRUB has both a simple menu interface for choosing preset entries from aconfiguration file, and a highly flexible command-line for performingany desired combination of boot commands.GRUB looks for its configuration file as soon as it is loaded. If oneis found, then the full menu interface is activated using whateverentries were found in the file. If you choose the command-line menuoption, or if the configuration file was not found, then GRUB drops tothe command-line interface.Command-line interface: The flexible command-line interfaceMenu interface: The simple menu interfaceMenu entry editor: Editing a menu entryHidden menu interface: The hidden menu interfaceNode:Command-line interface,Next:Menu interface,Up:InterfaceThe flexible command-line interfaceThe command-line interface provides a prompt and after it an editabletext area much like a command-line in Unix or DOS. Each command isimmediately executed after it is entered7. The commands (see Command-line and menu entry commands) are asubset of those available in the configuration file, used with exactlythe same syntax.Cursor movement and editing of the text on the line can be done via asubset of the functions available in the Bash shell:Move forward one character.Move back one character.Move to the start of the line.Move the the end of the line.Delete the character underneath the cursor.Delete the character to the left of the cursor.Kill the text from the current cursor position to the end of the line.Kill backward from the cursor to the beginning of the line.Yank the killed text back into the buffer at the cursor.Move up through the history list.Move down through the history list. When typing commands interactively, if the cursor is within or beforethe first word in the command-line, pressing the key (or) will display a listing of the available commands, and if thecursor is after the first word, the will provide acompletion listing of disks, partitions, and file names depending on thecontext.Note that you cannot use the completion functionality in the TFTPfilesystem. This is because TFTP doesn't support file name listing forthe security.Node:Menu interface,Next:Menu entry editor,Previous:Command-line interface,Up:InterfaceThe simple menu interfaceThe menu interface is quite easy to use. Its commands are bothreasonably intuitive and described on screen.Basically, the menu interface provides a list of boot entries tothe user to choose from. Use the arrow keys to select the entry ofchoice, then press to run it. An optional timeout isavailable to boot the default entry (the first one if not set), which isaborted by pressing any key.Commands are available to enter a bare command-line by pressing (which operates exactly like the non-config-file version of GRUB, butallows one to return to the menu if desired by pressing ) or toedit any of the boot entries by pressing .If you protect the menu interface with a password (see Security),all you can do is choose an entry by pressing , or press to enter the password.Node:Menu entry editor,Next:Hidden menu interface,Previous:Menu interface,Up:InterfaceEditing a menu entryThe menu entry editor looks much like the main menu interface, but thelines in the menu are individual commands in the selected entry insteadof entry names.If an is pressed in the editor, it aborts all the changes madeto the configuration entry and returns to the main menu interface.When a particular line is selected, the editor places the user at aspecial version of the GRUB command-line to edit that line. When theuser hits , GRUB replaces the line in question in the bootentry with the changes (unless it was aborted via ,in which case the changes are thrown away).If you want to add a new line to the menu entry, press if addinga line after the current line or press if before the currentline.To delete a line, hit the key . Although GRUB does not supportundo unfortunately, you can do almost the same thing by justreturning to the main menu.Node:Hidden menu interface,Previous:Menu entry editor,Up:InterfaceThe hidden menu interfaceWhen your terminal is dumb or you request GRUB of hiding the menuinterface explicitly with the command hiddenmenu(see hiddenmenu), GRUB doesn't show the menu interface (see Menu interface) and automatically boots the default entry, unlessinterrupted by pressing .When you interrupt the timeout and your terminal is dumb, GRUB fallsback to the command-line interface (see Command-line interface).Node:Commands,Next:Troubleshooting,Previous:Interface,Up:TopThe list of available commandsIn this chapter, we list all commands that are available in GRUB.Commands belong to different groups. A few can only be used inthe global section of the configuration file (or "menu"); mostof them can be entered on the command-line and can be either usedin the menu or in the menu entries.Menu-specific commands: General commands: Command-line and menu entry commands: Node:Menu-specific commands,Next:General commands,Up:CommandsThe list of commands for the menu onlyThe semantics used in parsing the configuration file are the following:The menu-specific commands have to be used before any others.The files must be in plain-text format.# at the beginning of a line in a configuration file means it isonly a comment.Options are separated by spaces.All numbers can be either decimal or hexadecimal. A hexadecimal numbermust be preceded by 0x, and is case-insensitive.Extra options or text at the end of the line is ignored unless otherwisespecified.Unrecognized commands are added to the current entry, except before entriesstart, where they are ignored. These commands can only be used in the menu:default: Set the default entryfallback: Set the fallback entryhiddenmenu: Hide the menu interfacetimeout: Set the timeouttitle: Start a menu entryNode:default,Next:fallback,Up:Menu-specific commandsdefaultdefault numCommandSet the default entry to the entry number num. Numbering startsfrom 0, and the entry number 0 is the default if the command is notused.You can specify saved instead of a number. In this case, thedefault entry is the entry saved with the commandsavedefault. See savedefault, for more information. Node:fallback,Next:hiddenmenu,Previous:default,Up:Menu-specific commandsfallbackfallback numCommandGo into unattended boot mode: if the default boot entry has any errors,instead of waiting for the user to do anything, immediately startover using the num entry (same numbering as the defaultcommand (see default)). This obviously won't help if the machine wasrebooted by a kernel that GRUB loaded. Node:hiddenmenu,Next:timeout,Previous:fallback,Up:Menu-specific commandshiddenmenuhiddenmenuCommandDon't display the menu. If the command is used, no menu will bedisplayed on the control terminal, and the default entry will bebooted after the timeout expired. The user can still request themenu to be displayed by pressing before the timeoutexpires. See also Hidden menu interface. Node:timeout,Next:title,Previous:hiddenmenu,Up:Menu-specific commandstimeouttimeout secCommandSet a timeout, in sec seconds, before automatically booting thedefault entry (normally the first entry defined). Node:title,Previous:timeout,Up:Menu-specific commandstitletitle name ...CommandStart a new boot entry, and set its name to the contents of the rest ofthe line, starting with the first


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