top of page

Remote learning support

Public·39 members
Timur Muravyov
Timur Muravyov

The Hidden Role of Chance in Life and in the Markets: Fooled by Randomness by Nassim Nicholas Taleb (Epub, Mobi, Pdf)


Fooled by Randomness: The Hidden Role of Chance in Life and in the Markets




Introduction




Have you ever wondered why some people seem to be successful while others struggle? Have you ever attributed your own success or failure to your skills, hard work, or intelligence? Have you ever assumed that there is a clear cause and effect relationship between your actions and your outcomes?




Fooled By Randomness Epub Mobi Pdf


Download File: https://www.google.com/url?q=https%3A%2F%2Furlcod.com%2F2uc9Uu&sa=D&sntz=1&usg=AOvVaw0xQ4S271thXd05eMHV3Vor



If you answered yes to any of these questions, you might be fooled by randomness. Randomness, chance, and luck are often overlooked or misunderstood factors that influence our lives and our work more than we realize. In this article, we will explore the main ideas from the book Fooled by Randomness by Nassim Nicholas Taleb, a renowned expert on risk, uncertainty, probability, and decision-making.


What is Fooled by Randomness about?




Fooled by Randomness is a book that challenges our conventional wisdom and exposes our cognitive biases when it comes to dealing with randomness and uncertainty. The book covers topics such as:



  • How we tend to confuse luck with skill, especially in domains with high degrees of randomness and large sample sizes.



  • How we tend to create stories and patterns to explain random events, even when they are largely unpredictable.



  • How we tend to ignore the possibility of alternative outcomes, especially when they are unfavorable or extreme.



  • How we tend to make emotional rather than rational choices, especially when we are under stress or pressure.



  • How we can improve our thinking and decision-making by acknowledging the role of randomness and uncertainty in our lives and work.



Who is Nassim Nicholas Taleb?




Nassim Nicholas Taleb is a former trader, hedge fund manager, professor, philosopher, and best-selling author. He is known for his books on risk, uncertainty, probability, and decision-making, such as The Black Swan, Antifragile, Skin in the Game, and The Bed of Procrustes. He is also the founder of Universa Investments, a firm that specializes in tail risk hedging. He has been described as one of the most influential thinkers of our time.


Summary of the main ideas




We underestimate the role of randomness and luck in our lives and work




One of the main themes of Fooled by Randomness is that we tend to underestimate the role of randomness and luck in our lives and work. We often attribute our success or failure to our skills, hard work, or intelligence, while ignoring or downplaying the impact of chance, variability, and unpredictability. This leads us to make false assumptions, draw wrong conclusions, and take inappropriate actions.


The problem of survivorship bias and hindsight bias




One of the reasons why we underestimate the role of randomness and luck is because of survivorship bias and hindsight bias. Survivorship bias is the tendency to focus on the winners and ignore the losers, especially in domains with high degrees of randomness and large sample sizes. For example, we tend to admire and emulate successful entrepreneurs, investors, or artists, without considering the many who failed or gave up along the way. Hindsight bias is the tendency to believe that past events were more predictable and inevitable than they actually were. For example, we tend to rationalize and justify our own or others' success or failure, without acknowledging the role of luck or randomness.


The difference between mild success and wild success




Another reason why we underestimate the role of randomness and luck is because we fail to distinguish between mild success and wild success. Mild success is the result of skills and hard work, while wild success is the result of variance and luck. For example, a dentist can achieve mild success by being competent and diligent in his profession, while a rock musician can achieve wild success by being lucky and popular in his industry. The problem is that we tend to confuse the two types of success and attribute them to the same factors. We also tend to overestimate our chances of achieving wild success and underestimate the risks involved.


The concept of alternative histories and expected value




A better way to understand the role of randomness and luck is to use the concept of alternative histories and expected value. Alternative histories are the possible outcomes that could have happened if history played out differently. For example, if you flip a coin 10 times, you could get 10 heads, 10 tails, or any combination in between. Each outcome is equally likely, but only one will actually happen. Expected value is the average value of all possible outcomes, weighted by their probabilities. For example, if you bet $10 on a coin flip, your expected value is $0, because you have a 50% chance of winning $10 and a 50% chance of losing $10.


By using these concepts, we can avoid being fooled by randomness and luck. We can evaluate our decisions not by their results, but by their costs and benefits across different scenarios. We can also recognize that some outcomes are more random than others, depending on their range and frequency of variation.


We are blind to probabilities and make irrational choices




Another theme of Fooled by Randomness is that we are blind to probabilities and make irrational choices. We often rely on our intuition, emotions, or heuristics when dealing with randomness and uncertainty, rather than using logic, statistics, or mathematics. This leads us to make errors, biases, and fallacies when interpreting information, evaluating evidence, or making predictions.


The problem of confirmation bias and narrative fallacy




One of the reasons why we are blind to probabilities and make irrational choices is because of confirmation bias and narrative fallacy. Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek, interpret, or remember information that confirms our preexisting beliefs or hypotheses, while ignoring or rejecting information that contradicts them. For example, we tend to read or watch news that aligns with our political views, while avoiding or dismissing news that challenges them. Narrative fallacy is the tendency to create stories and patterns to explain random events, even when they are largely unpredictable. For example, we tend to attribute causality and meaning to coincidences, correlations, or outliers.


The difference between noise and signal




Another reason why we are blind to probabilities and make irrational choices is because we fail to distinguish between noise and signal. Noise is the random variation or fluctuation in data or information that has no significance or relevance. Signal is the underlying trend or pattern in data or information that has meaning or importance. For example, a stock price can change daily due to noise factors such as market sentiment, media hype, or trading volume. However, a stock price can also change over time due to signal factors such as earnings growth, competitive advantage, or innovation.


The problem is that we tend to overreact to noise and underreact to signal. We tend to make hasty decisions based on short-term fluctuations rather than long-term trends. We also tend to ignore or miss subtle signals that indicate changes in fundamentals or expectations.


The concept of skewness and asymmetry




The concept of skewness and asymmetry




A better way to deal with probabilities and make rational choices is to use the concept of skewness and asymmetry. Skewness is a measure of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution. If the left tail is larger than the right tail, the function is said to have negative skewness. If the right tail is larger than the left tail, the function is said to have positive skewness. For example, a lottery jackpot has a positive skewness, because there are a few very large outcomes and many very small outcomes.


Asymmetry is a property of a situation where the outcomes are not equally balanced or distributed. For example, a coin toss has symmetry, because the outcomes are equally likely and equally valuable. However, a Russian roulette has asymmetry, because the outcomes are not equally likely and not equally valuable.


By using these concepts, we can avoid being blind to probabilities and make rational choices. We can evaluate our decisions not by their average outcomes, but by their worst-case or best-case scenarios. We can also seek situations that have positive asymmetry or optionality, where we have more to gain than to lose, or where we can limit our downside and increase our upside.


We can improve our understanding of randomness and uncertainty




The final theme of Fooled by Randomness is that we can improve our understanding of randomness and uncertainty. We can overcome our cognitive biases and errors by adopting a more humble, skeptical, and curious attitude towards our knowledge and beliefs. We can also use tools and techniques that help us cope with randomness and uncertainty in our lives and work.


The problem of overconfidence and arrogance




One of the reasons why we struggle with randomness and uncertainty is because of overconfidence and arrogance. Overconfidence is the tendency to overestimate our abilities, knowledge, or accuracy, while underestimating our errors, risks, or uncertainties. For example, we tend to be overconfident about our predictions, judgments, or decisions, while ignoring or dismissing feedback, evidence, or counterarguments. Arrogance is the attitude of superiority, pride, or contempt towards others who have different opinions, beliefs, or values. For example, we tend to be arrogant about our success or status, while looking down on or criticizing others who are less successful or different from us.


The difference between skills and luck




Another reason why we struggle with randomness and uncertainty is because we fail to differentiate between skills and luck. Skills are the abilities or competencies that we can control, improve, or measure. Luck is the influence of chance or randomness that we cannot control, predict, or measure. For example, playing chess requires skills, while playing roulette requires luck. The problem is that we tend to confuse skills with luck, especially in domains that involve both factors. We tend to attribute our success or failure to our skills when it was actually due to luck.


The concept of antifragility and optionality




A better way to cope with randomness and uncertainty is to use the concept of antifragility and optionality. Antifragility is a property of a system that benefits from stress, disorder, volatility, or uncertainty. For example, a muscle is antifragile because it grows stronger when it is exposed to exercise or resistance. Optionality is a property of a situation that gives us the right but not the obligation to take action in the future depending on how things unfold. For example, a call option is an optionality because it gives us the right but not the obligation to buy an asset at a predetermined price in the future.


By using these concepts, we can improve our understanding of randomness and uncertainty. We can seek systems that are antifragile rather than fragile or robust. We can also seek situations that have optionality rather than obligation or commitment.


Conclusion




Why you should read Fooled by Randomness




You should read Fooled by Randomness if you want to:



  • Learn how randomness and luck influence your life and work more than you think.



  • Avoid being fooled by your cognitive biases and errors when dealing with randomness and uncertainty.



  • Improve your thinking and decision-making by acknowledging the role of randomness and uncertainty.



  • Discover tools and techniques that help you cope with randomness and uncertainty.



How to apply the lessons from Fooled by Randomness




Here are some practical tips on how to apply the lessons from Fooled by Randomness:



  • Be humble and skeptical about your knowledge and beliefs. Don't be overconfident or arrogant. Seek feedback, evidence, and counterarguments.



  • Be aware of your cognitive biases and errors. Don't be fooled by survivorship bias, hindsight bias, confirmation bias, or narrative fallacy. Use logic, statistics, and mathematics.



  • Be mindful of the role of randomness and luck. Don't confuse luck with skill. Use the concept of alternative histories and expected value.



  • Be careful of the degree of randomness and uncertainty. Don't overreact to noise or underreact to signal. Use the concept of skewness and asymmetry.



  • Be adaptable and resilient to randomness and uncertainty. Don't be fragile or robust. Use the concept of antifragility and optionality.



FAQs




What is the main message of Fooled by Randomness?




The main message of Fooled by Randomness is that we should not underestimate the role of randomness and luck in our lives and work, and that we should not be fooled by our cognitive biases and errors when dealing with randomness and uncertainty.


Who should read Fooled by Randomness?




Fooled by Randomness is a book for anyone who wants to learn how to think better and make better decisions in a complex and uncertain world. It is especially relevant for people who are involved in domains with high degrees of randomness and uncertainty, such as business, finance, investing, entrepreneurship, or innovation.


Is Fooled by Randomness a difficult book to read?




Fooled by Randomness is not a difficult book to read, but it is not a light or easy book either. It requires some background knowledge and interest in topics such as probability, statistics, psychology, philosophy, and economics. It also challenges some of our common assumptions and beliefs, which might make us uncomfortable or defensive. However, it is also a very engaging, entertaining, and insightful book that will make us think more deeply and critically about our lives and work.


What are some other books similar to Fooled by Randomness?




Some other books similar to Fooled by Randomness are:



  • The Black Swan, Antifragile, Skin in the Game, and The Bed of Procrustes, also by Nassim Nicholas Taleb.



  • The Signal and the Noise by Nate Silver.



  • The Drunkard's Walk by Leonard Mlodinow.



  • The Art of Thinking Clearly by Rolf Dobelli.



  • Misbehaving by Richard Thaler.



  • Predictably Irrational by Dan Ariely.



  • The Undoing Project by Michael Lewis.



  • The Logic of Life by Tim Harford.



  • The Power of Habit by Charles Duhigg.



How can I get a copy of Fooled by Randomness?




You can get a copy of Fooled by Randomness from various sources, such as:



  • Amazon: You can buy the paperback, hardcover, Kindle, or audiobook version of the book from Amazon.



  • Audible: You can listen to the audiobook version of the book from Audible.



  • Libby: You can borrow the ebook or audiobook version of the book from Libby, a free app that lets you access thousands of ebooks and audiobooks from your local library.



  • Scribd: You can read or listen to the book from Scribd, a subscription service that gives you unlimited access to millions of ebooks, audiobooks, magazines, podcasts, and more.



I hope you enjoyed this article and learned something new from it. If you want to read more articles like this, please visit my website at www.bing.com. Thank you for reading! 71b2f0854b


About

Welcome to the group! You can connect with other members, ge...

Members

  • Wanda Bruenig
  • MIL KES
    MIL KES
  • Anna Allen
    Anna Allen
  • Activated PC
    Activated PC
  • Latest Keygen
    Latest Keygen
bottom of page